Thursday, December 5, 2019
Protection and Promotion of Cultural Expressions - Free Samples
Question: Discuss about the Protection and Promotion of Cultural Expressions. Answer: Introduction: For many years, migration and diversity in Australia have served as one extensively-studied topic. It is widely believed that changes in immigration patterns have deeply impacted Australias strategies for handling cultural differences. This situation raises a key question about how legislation and public activities influence the countrys ways of coping with diverse backgrounds, values, and practices. It is not hard to understand that resolving this question requires a careful investigation of the themes of policy responses, as well as public assumptions. With a goal of clearly explaining Australias management of diversity-related matters, this essay explores the contents of the 1966 movie, Theyre a Weird Mob. This essay argues that legislation and public attitudes have been two powerful factors regulating Australias process of addressing the impacts of ethnic and cultural diversity. By portraying Ninos difficult experience of digesting local culture, the director, Michael Powell call s attention to state policies and the Australian publics morally problematic act of forcing immigrants to adopt Australian lifestyles. Purnells experience of living in one prejudice-free community reflects that official policies and Australian citizens have learned to value and celebrate differences in recent decades. These aspects, as illustrated by this essay, demonstrate the countrys gradual progress regarding using a multicultural method to driving social development. An analysis of the movies portrayals of Ninos experience of confronting peoples prejudiced expectations makes clear the Australian publics racist sentiments in the 1960s. Films and other forms of mass media have served as one effective communication tool for shaping public opinions of the migration history of Australia (Bertrand and Collins, 1981). An easy look at the contents and themes of Powells movie clearly suggests his goals for building dialogues about the countrys big trend of educating immigrants to digest Australian culture. Throughout the movie, Powell (1966) focuses on depicting the Italian newcomer, Ninos struggles to adopt the values and norms of Australia. It seems that the male protagonists interactions with every person are intended to teach him to assimilate into the world of the Anglo-Celtic mob (Wang, 2011). One good example showing Powells intent to reflect the Australian publics prejudiced attitude towards non-white residents stems from Ninos conversation with o ne police officer in one ferry, which happens in the second time they meet. Once seeing Nino, the police officer says: You again? You are drunk this time?. After hearing Ninos explanation, the police officer impatiently asks Where are you going?. These claims, along with the police officers indifferent look, fully reveals his biased idea that people like Nino are those who can easily get into trouble and hinder the local polices order-keeping tasks. This example, along with other scenes, illustrates Powells efforts to comment on the Australian publics stereotypical opinions of immigrants and their desire for promoting the Australian way of living (Mascitelli et al., 2016). From these details, one can learn that the movie does an outstanding job of getting across the idea about white Australians racial bias and its intolerance of cultural differences. The movies depictions of the Italian migrant, Ninos story of gradually adopting the Australian way of life reflect immigration policies crucial role in shaping the discriminatory practices of the country. It is true that cinematic representations directly impact public knowledge about one places social circumstances and political realities. In his movie, when describing Ninos encounter with Aussie culture, Powell successfully conveys the message over the restrictive nature of the countrys immigration policies in the 1960s. One example illustrating this fact comes from the directors portrayals of one drunken mans abusive speech on the ferry. In this scene, the Australian man refers to one Italian family as bloody dagos and makes fun of their accents. The mans use of the term dagos, which is a sign of prejudice, along with his claim that Its our ferry, not your ferry, raises thoughts about the nations belief in racial superiority (Jimenez, 2013). Most importantly, the mans speech enhan ces viewers ideas of immigration policies key function in causing the severe phenomenon of racial discrimination. At the time when the movie was made, the White Australia policy, which caused Australia to build a racial hierarchy to receive desirable immigrants, according to the researcher, Jessica Carniel (2012), was still influential. The policy is believed by Carniel as having an important position in shaping the history of the racial bias of the country. Carniels words point out that in Australia in the post-World War II era, the atmosphere of race prejudice was largely caused by the countrys operation of immigration laws. By portraying the abusive language of the Australian man, the movie, therefore, effectively represents legislations key part in increasing systemic discrimination. While perceiving the movies description of how Nino is expected to merge into the social and cultural landscape of Sydney, modern people can easily conclude that forced assimilation is morally unacceptable in current years. What shapes the movies unique position in the history of Australia is its messages over two issues: cultural acculturation and assimilation (Mayer, 2007). The fact that Nino eventually becomes friends with his co-workers from Australia embodies a fine example of acculturation, which is the phenomenon where groups of people maintain contacts by sharing or adapting to different cultures (Bolaffi, 2003). This phenomenon is acceptable in that it conforms to the western worlds principle of protecting individuals freedom of expression and communication (Schorlemer and Stoll, 2012). One equally important feature of the movie is its conversation over assimilation. This theme can be identified in many scenes where people Nino meets try to force him to rapidly absorb the Au stralian lifestyle. Assimilation involves a countrys behavior of requiring people from different cultural or racial backgrounds to adopt its ways of living without respecting their own customs and conventions (Cotesta et al., 2013). Even till the late 1960s, assimilation policies, as asserted by the scholar, Bruce Kaye (2004), were implemented by Australia to sustain its national identity as a white nation. These policies are morally wrong because their operations are inevitably achieved through coercion, which violates human rights. In other words, in the movie, local peoples actions are problematic as they cause Nino to lose or abandon things that are specific to his own culture. These aspects help people conclude that Australias assimilation measures are morally incorrect because of their trend of denying the cultures and identities of non-white peoples. The challenges of racism, workplace discrimination, and ill behavior to the employees are some of the factors that are explored in the movie. The immigrations policies have become tougher these days, than it was at that point of time. Suspicious people in the eyes of the immigration officers face difficulty in entering the country. The suspicious group of people not only constitutes oif people who are having no visas or papers required, but also people who have cancelled visas, some history of crime or offence. Therefore, the immigration officer easily allows Nino to enter Australian territory which may not be applicable in the present times. Immigration officers may detent anybody who is suspicious in their view. When Nino met Harry it was seen that Harry was behaving very badly withy Nino including hurling racist comments. It shows the thought process of Harry that is anti-Italian. There has been quite a number of efforts and legislations from Australian government to reduce the effects of racism from the country. However, these could not successfully contain the problem till date. The Race Discrimination Act 1975 is one act through which Australian administration aimed at reducing the evil of racism from the country. The act recognizes the fact that there should be tough actions against anyone who racially hurts or discriminates other people. The act states theRacial Discrimination Act 1975gives effect to Australia's obligations under the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. Its major objectives are to promote equality before the law for all persons, regardless of their race, color or national or ethnic origin, and make discrimination against people on the basis of their race, color, descent or national or ethnic origin unlawful. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, Australia has gradually upgraded this vision. The country has considered cultural diversity as one important component of its social development. In recent years, Australia, as pointed out by the Australian academic, Renata Summo-O'Connell, has been engaging in building its society on the basis of the principle of cultural and racial differences (2009, p.320). These aspects, hence, manifest that both legislation and public activities have deeply impacted Australias methods of addressing the effects of diverse needs, viewpoints, and priorities. Recently the number of students coming to Australia for studying has increased in number. They are enrolled in varieties of courses at universities in Australia. All these institutions have included the clauses of diversity and elimination of discrimination. There are coaches who are dedicatedly appointed for behavioral therapies who manage the cultural diversities in Australian institutions (Altbach, 2015). The students are given lessons of cross cultural communication. If any activities of racial discrimination even within the universities are found to take place they are duly judged according to racism laws and the authorities are bound to take strong actions so that such activities do not take place in the future. As shown in the movie, Nino is subjected to extreme physical exertion due to which he ultimately falls sick. Still today the problem of racism in the workplaces of Australia exists. Even during the time of recruitment the recruitment officers may be practicing racism within their mind by giving preference to the race they prefer first and then recruiting people from other nationalities. Australian Department of Industry has stated that In Australia, national and state laws cover equal employment opportunity and anti-discrimination in the workplace, therefore it is punishable by law to show any discrimination towards any particular class. The Australian Human Rights Commission has given the Fair Work laws that prevent any workplace discrimination or exploitation (Humanrights.gov.au 2018). Especially after the crisis of World War 2 it was seen that there was an international problem of refugee crisis and all the countries around the world was requested by the United nations to Support immigrants from other countries. Australia developed a detention center at the Manus Island which they called as immigration processing center (Phillips, 2012). In this island it was reported that several immigrants were kept in conditions which was similar like detention and imprisonment. Recently the Supreme court of Papua New Guinea where the detention center is located at declared that this detention center is illegal and soon it is expected to close. During the film this detention center did not exist and the immigrants were treated in a more liberal way. Australia has also taken up significant legislations to reduce discrimination of physical disabilities or discrimination on the basis of gender. TheSex Discrimination Act 1984gives effect to Australia's obligations under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and certain aspects of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Convention 156. Its major objectives are to promote equality between men and women eliminate discrimination on the basis of sex, marital status or pregnancy and, with respect to dismissals, family responsibilities, and eliminate sexual harassment at work, in educational institutions, in the provision of goods and services, in the provision of accommodation and the delivery of Commonwealth programs. (Humanrights.gov.au, 2018) The modern history of Australia allows the world to perceive that issues about the management of cultural diversity play a critical role in influencing the countrys daily development. For a long time, scholars and researchers have exhibited their strong interests in examining the social, cultural, and political factors that shape Australias ways of treating tourists, immigrants, and minorities. An investigation of this topic shows that over the past several decades, both official policies and the Australian public have adopted different methods of coping with cultural differences. The themes of the 1966 movie, Theyre a Weird Mob, clearly demonstrate this fact. While portraying how the Italian newcomer, Nino is forced by local people to digest Aussie culture. The movie fully reflects that assimilation policies and public behaviors collectively shaped the serious phenomenon of racial prejudice in the 1960s. Modern peoples analysis of the movie can deepen their comprehension of Australi as significant progress in reducing discrimination and valuing diversity. References Altbach, P., 2015. Perspectives on internationalizing higher education.International Higher Education, (27). Bertrand, Ina. and Collins, Diane. 1981. Government and Film in Australia. Sydney: Currency Press. Bolaffi, Guido. 2003. Dictionary of Race, Ethnicity and Culture. London: SAGE. Carniel, Jessica. 2012. Whos the Weird Mob Anyway? Assimilation and Authenticity in Theyre A Weird Mob. In: Making Film and Television Histories: Australia and New Zealand. James Bennet and Rebecca Beirne (eds.). London: I.B. Tauris, p.241-245. Cotesta, Vittorio., Vincenzo Cicchelli., and Mariella Nocenzi. 2013. Global Society, Cosmopolitanism and Human Rights. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Goodman, David., D. J. O Hearn., Chris Wallace-Crabbe. 1991. Multicultural Australia: The Challenges of Change. Melbourne: Scribe. Hasmath, Reza. 2016. Managing Ethnic Diversity: Meanings and Practices from an International Perspective. London: Routledge. Humanrights.gov.au (2018).Legislation | Australian Human Rights Commission. [online] Humanrights.gov.au. Available at: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/legal/legislation [Accessed 28 Mar. 2018]. Humanrights.gov.au., 2018.Legislation | Australian Human Rights Commission. [online] Humanrights.gov.au. Available at: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/legal/legislation [Accessed 28 Mar. 2018]. Jimenez, Miriam. 2013. Inventive Politicians and Ethnic Ascent in American Politics: The Uphill Elections of Italians and Mexicans to the U.S. Congress. London: Routledge. Jupp, James. 2007. From White Australia to Woomera: The Story of Australian Immigration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kaye, Bruce. 2004. Reinventing Anglicanism: A Vision of Confidence, Community and Engagement in Anglican Christianity. New York: Church Publishing. Levey, Geoffrey. 2013. Political Theory And Australian Multiculturalism. New York: Berghahn Books. Mascitelli, Bruno., Sonia Mycak, and Gerardo, Papalia. 2016. The European Diaspora in Australia: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Mayer, Geoff. (2007). The Cinema of Australia and New Zealand. London: Wallflower Press. Miller, Chris. And Lionel Orchard. 2016. Australian Public Policy: Progressive Ideas in the Neoliberal Ascendency. Bristol: Policy Press. Moran, Anthony. 2016. The Public Life of Australian Multiculturalism: Building a Diverse Nation. London: Springer. Phillips, J., 2012. The Pacific Solutionrevisited: a statistical guide to the asylum seeker caseloads on Nauru and Manus Island.Background Note. Powell, Michael. 1966. Theyre a Weird Mob. YouTube video, March 21, 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDvMY1cE5q4feature=youtu.be Schorlemer, Sabine. and Stoll, Peter-Tobias. 2012. The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: Explanatory Notes. London: Springer. Summo-O Connell, Renata. 2009. Imagined Australia: Reflections Around the Reciprocal Construction of Identity Between Australia and Europe. New York: Peter Lang, p.320. Virtue, Robert. 2015. Growing up in a cultural melting pot. [online] ABC Newcastle NSW. Available at: https://www.abc.net.au/local/photos/2015/02/03/4173221.htm [Accessed 21 Mar. 2018].